PROF. SHYAM PRAKASH

 

October 15, 1941 – August 14, 2010

We miss you!

 

Prof. Shyam Prakash was the doyen of the Indian Biotechnologists and will long be remembered for his contributions to science and as impeccable human being. He has achieved eminence by his extensive work in the field of cytogenetical breeding and somatic cell genetics of Brassicas and allies. The bibilography of his published work, which is printed at the end of this memoir, will give an idea of his extraordinary breadth and scope of Prof. Prakash’s work on genetic improvement of oilseed Brassicas.

 

BIRTH AND PARENTAGE

The life history of Prof. Shyam Prakash poses a great encouraging example for the young generation living in the small town surroundings can grow to a level that was not seen possible by his contemporaries. It is an amazing story of how an unflinching faith in yourself coupled with virtues of honesty, hardwork and sincerity can make you achieve what you want in life.

 

Prof. Shyam Prakash was born on 15th October, 1941 in the middle class family at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, where his ancestors resided atleast since 18th century. His ancestors were “Zamindars” and famous as “Banker family” in the town.

 

His father Shri Shiv Shankar was a businessman, while his mother Smt. Gayatri Devi raised her five children – 3 sons and 2 daughters; Prof. Prakash was second. His childhood was spent under stressful financial circumstances and frugal living but upright and lofty thinking inculcated by his paternal uncle Shri Jai Shanker, whom he regarded as his father. He was very affectionate to his mother who was a learned lady. Prof. Prakash grew up as an idealistic, simplistic and progressive person because of the positive teachings by his mother.

 

Prof. Prakash completed his preliminary education from Aligarh first from H.B. Inter College and then from Dharam Samaj Inter College. Two teachers Shri H.C. Jain in class 6th and Shri Trilok Majupuria in 12th had profoundly influenced him with their knowledge and simplicity. He earned his Bachelour of Science (1961) and Masters of Science – Botany (1963) from Aligarh University under the guidance of Prof. K.A Chowdhary - Head (Botany dept.) who was the most influential person he met in the university.

 

He started with a modest education with numerous hurdles but destiny had something else written for him – a phenomenal growth and unmatched success.

 

PROFESSIONAL CAREER

Prof. Shyam Prakash joined Division of Botany (later Division of Genetics), Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi in 1963 and and since then worked on improvement of Brassica employing cytogenetical and biotechnological techniques.

 

He submitted his Doctoral thesis on “Artificial Synthesis of Brassica juncea” in 1968 and obtained Ph.D. degree in 1969 from Aligarh University.

 

It was at Indian Agricultural Research Institute that young Shyam Prakash found the training ground that was necessary to mould a humble village boy from middle class background into an excellent researcher, a hard taskmaster and above all a visionary. These traits were to manifest themselves all through his future career.

 

His interaction with Prof. M.S. Swaminathan at IARI earlier in his career proved so benefitial and motivating that he started taking his work seriously.

 

In 1976, he was awarded a Fellowship by Japanese Society for Promotion of Sciences to work on Cytogenetics of Wild Germplasm of Brassica coenospecies in Tohoku University, Sendai. He moved to Biotechnology Center in 1988 at National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, from where he retired as Professor and Principal Scientist on 31st October 2001. These years could perhaps be termed the blossoming years when Prof. Prakash was in full bloom under the guidance of Prof. V.L. Chopra who was then the Director of this group.

 

In 2003, he was offered INSA Honorary Scientist position which he served until his death. Because of his stupendous contribution in the field of oilseed Brassicas, he was elected as a member of INSA Sectional Committee (Agricultural Sciences) and was to serve until December 31st 2011. In 2009, he was nominated as governing body member of Deshbandhu College, Delhi University, where he served from 2009 to 2010.

 

All throughout his career spanning 47 years, he worked on genetic improvement of oilseed Brassicas using conventional, biotechnological and chromosome engineering approaches to:

 

  • Expand the genetic base of naturally occurring allopolyploid species through genome manipulation

  • Introgress nuclear genes from wild allies conferring disease resistance and other desirable agronomic traits in crop species; and

  • Synthesize alloplasmic male sterile lines (CMS) following cytoplasm substitution, and construction of fertility restorers

 

Even after his official retirement, Prof. Prakash continued to be active in his favourite pursuit of research. His scientific papers as well as pedagogical writings continued. Prof. Prakash’s publications include more than 80 Research papers in International Journals viz. Nature, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Plant Cell Reports, Genetical Research Camb., Euphytica, Genetica, Molecular and General Genetics etc., 20 Reviews and 3 books.

 

He was a great source of inspiration to his students with high standard and successfully guided 12 MSc. and PhD students. His students will always remember him as a caring mentor and a dedicated teacher who went out of his way and gave of his time to his students. He helped them see the possibilities in and for themselves and inspired them to pursue their interests with passion.

 

His researches earned him several awards, the coveted Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award (1999) of Indian Council of Agricultural Research among others.  Recognition for his achievements came in many forms. He received many fellowships, invited in numerous international conferences and chaired many scientific sessions on Brassicas in many symposiums as listed below: 

 

  • Japanese Society for Promotion of Sciences, Tokyo Fellowship to work on Cytogenetics of wild Brassicas, Dept. Plant Breeding. Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. May 1976 – April 1977

 

  • UNDP Fellowship to work on Cytoplasmic Male sterility systems in Brassicas, Agriculture Canada, University Of Sasketchwan, Saskatoon, Canada, April 1990 – October 1990

 

  • World Bank Fellowship to collect wild Brassicas and allies from Mediterranean region. Dept. Biologia Vegetal. Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Spain August - September, 1995

 

  • CIMMYT Symposium on The genetics and Exploitation of Heterosis in Crops: August 17-22, 1997, Mexico City. Presented a Poster entitled: Alloplasmics for Male Sterility In Brassicas  Development of Cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility resoration systems of variable origin in Brassica juncea

 

  • ISHS Symposium on Brassicas-Tenth Crucifer Genetics Workshop. September 23-27, 1997 Rennes, France. Chaired the Session Plant Breeding and presented a paper entitled Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Systems In Brassca juncea

 

  • 10th International Rapeseed Congress, September 26-29, 1999, Canberra, Australia. Chaired the Session Breeding and Technology: F1 Hybrid Germplasm Exploitation.     Presented a paper entitled: 80 Years of Brassica Cytogenetics Visiting Professor, Dept. Life Sciences, Melbourne University, Australia  October 1999

 

  • Indian National Science Academy Visiting Professor, Dept. Plant Breeding, Justus- Leibeg University Giessen, Germany, March -. April 2000.

 

  • 11th International Rapeseed Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, Delivered an invited talk  Brassica napus: A new oilseed crop in India, July 2003

 

  • Visiting Professor, Dept. Crop Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.  April 2004.

 

  • 12th International Rapeseed Congress, Wuhan, China, 26 March- 4th April 2007. Organized a Workshop on Utilization of Wild Germplasm in Brassicaceae, Chaired a Session on Hybrids.

 

  • Visiting Professor, Agriculture Canada, Saskatoon, Canada July 8-17, 2007

 

  • Visiting Professor, National Key Laboratory, Dept. Crop Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.  May 11-25, 2008

 

  • Participated in the Symposium “Wild Germplasm Preservation” Saskatoon, Canada July 24-31, 2009. Delivered a talk at Plant Biotechnology Institute, Saskatoon

 

  • Delivered an invited talk “Brassica Cytogenetics: A Historical Journey” at U Memoreal Symposium, Busan, Korea. Organized by Korean Academy of Sciences, 9th August- 14th August 2009

 

  • Visiting Professor, National Key Laboratory, Dept. Crop Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.  May 16-27, 2010 

 

 

SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS

Prof. Shyam Prakash immensely contributed in the field of cytogenetical breeding and somatic cell genetics of Brassicas and allies. His innovative approach of integrating cytogenetic, biotechnological and conventional breeding was pathbreaking and contributed to improvement of crop Brassica species.

 

Research Highlights:

 

  1. Artificial synthesis of natural alloploids of Brassica juncea, B. carinata and B. napus through sexual and somatic hybridizations using enormous variability of constituent parents, generated a large spectrum of morphological and physiological variants.   Novel combinations of cytoplasmic organelles were obtained following protoplast fusion.  There are the integral components of Brassica improvement programmes in India.  As a result, several high yielding varieties were released for cultivation.  Introduction of B. napus and B. carinata was the first attempt in India.

 

  1. Extensive cytogenetical investigations on wild germplasm of Brassica and related genera in Brassica coenospecies were carried out.  An array of sexual and somatic hybrids were obtained and characterized.

 

  1. Alloplasmics in B. juncea, B. campestris and B. napus were synthesized combining the diverse cytoplasms from Brassica coenospecies for expression of cytoplasmic male sterility. The alloplasmics exhibit stable male sterility. Fertility restorer nuclear genes for some of these CMS were introgressed from the respective wild cytoplasm donors following chromosome engineering.  As a result, several 3-line systems are available in mustard for the first time for developing heterotic hybrids.  Hybrids based on Moricandia system were developed with 20-30% yield advantages.  It was for the first time a hybrid was developed in Brassica juncea.

 

Major contributions include enhancement of genetic variations in natural alloploid species of Brassica and extensive cytogenetical investigations on wild germplasm of Brassica and allies.

A spectrum of genetic variation in natural alloploid Brassica spp. viz. B.juncea, B.napus and B.carinata was obtained through their artificial synthesis using enormous variations of constituent parents following sexual and somatic hybridizations. This resulted into large spectrum of morphological and physiological variants.  Novel combinations of cytoplasmic organelles were obtained following protoplast fusion.  These variants are the integral parts of Brassica breeding programs in India. Several newly released varieties of; B.juncea, B. carinata   and B.napus have these variants in their pedigrees. Synthesis of early maturing and productive strains of Brassica napus and Brassica carinata was the first attempt to introduce these crops in India, which gave impetus to develop and release suitable B.napus and B.carinata cultivars in India.

Wild germplasm of Brassica and related genera constitutes a potential reservoir of useful nuclear genes for conferring disease resistance, several abiotic stress and yield contributing characters; and cytoplasmic genes for inducing male sterility. Prof. Prakash, around 1975, initiated extensive cytogenetical investigations on this germplasm for the first time in India. Hybridisations, both sexual and somatic, have been attempted between wild and crop species to introgress these agronomically desirable genes. An array of interspecific, intergeneric and intertribal sexual alloploids {34} and somatic hybrids  {8} were synthesized and characterized for their morphology, chromosome pairing behaviour, and fertility and for cytoplasmic organelles in somatic hybrids. Somatic hybrid combinations are Brassica spinesence + B.juncea, Trachystoma ballii + B.juncea, Moricandia arvensis + B.juncea, Sinapis alba + B.juncea, Diplotaxis Gomez-campoi + B.nigra, Camellina sativa + B.carinata and Diplotaxis catholca + B.juncea. Intergenomic mitochondrial recombination was observed to be a regular feature in somatic hybrids while chloroplast recombination, a rare event was observed in somatic hybrid Trachystoma ballii + B.juncea. All these sexual allopollyploids and somatic hybrids were extensively backcrossed to B.juncea to introgress nuclear genes and for developing alloplasmic male sterile lines. As a result nine alloplasmic Brassica juncea lines expressing stable male sterility were synthesized based on Brassica oxyrrhina, Trachystoma ballii, Moricandia arvensis, Diplotaxis siettiana, Diplotaxis siifolia, Diplotaxis catholica, Diplotaxis erucoides, Erucastrum gallicum, Enarthrocarpus lyratus and Erucastrum canariense cytoplasms. Several of these systems exhibit developmental abnormalities viz. mild to severe leaf chlorosis due to alien plastid interaction; and floral deformities leading to poor seed set. These were rectified following protoplast fusion between CMS and normal B.Juncea. Alien chloroplast substitution for chlorosis removal and mitochondrial recombination for rectifying floral abnormalities have been implicated. Fertility restoration genes for Moricandia, Trachystoma, Diplotaxis erucoides, Diplotaxis catholica, Diplotaxis siettiana, Enarthrocarpus lyratus and Erucastrum canariense systems have been introgressed from these wild species following chromosome engineering.  As a result, a number of perfact 3-line systems are available for the first time in Brassica juncea. These constitute the integral components of hybrid development programs in India. Preliminary observations on hybrids based on Moricandia sterility-fertility restoration system indicate 25-40 percent increase in seed yield, which is likely to contribute significantly to Indian economy. Hybrids based on other systems are in the various stages of development. Nuclear genes from several wild species conferring resistance to fungal diseases white rust and alternaria blight have been introgressed to B.juncea.

 

Application and impact of contribution:

 

Prof. Prakash’s investigations have resulted in generating genetic stocks of Brassica juncea, B. napus and B. carinata, which are of significant value in crop improvement programme in the following way:

 

  • Synthesis of early maturing and productive strains of B. napus (rapeseed) and B. carinata was the first attempt for introduction and cultivation of these species in India.  It gave impetus to develop and release suitable B. napus and B. carinata cultivars.

 

  • Strains of B. juncea (mustard, the predominating species in India) introgressed with genetic information from wild relatives were generated.  These have gene/s conferring resistance to fungal diseases in particular, which will help in eradicating the diseases.

 

  • An array of cytoplasmic male sterile and fertility restorer systems were made available in B. juncea for the first time.  There is every possibility to develop high yielding hybrid cultivars in B. juncea in the coming years.  This will result in increasing the seed production by at least 30-40% contributing significantly to Indian economy.  Experimental hybrids based on Moricandia system show promise with 30 - 45 % yield advantage.

 

 

HONOURS & AWARDS

 

{1977}  Fellowship: Japanese Society Promotion Sciences, Tokyo to work on Cytogenetics of             Wild Brassicas.

 

{1997}  B.P.Pal Award for Outstanding Researches in Genetics and Plant Breeding  

 

{1997}  Chaired the Session on: Plant Breeding. ISHS Symposium on Brassicas, Rennes, France     

 

{1998}  Fellow, Indian National Science Academy   

 

{1999}  Rafi Ahmad Kidwai Award for Cytogenetics and Biotechnology, Indian Council Agricultural Research      

 

{1999} Fellow, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences

 

{1999} Chaired the Session Breeding and Technology: F1 Hybrid   Germplasm   Exploitation. 10th International Rapeseed Congress, Canberra, Australia

                                   

{2003}  Silver Jubilee Medal in Plant and Agriculture Sciences, Indian National Science Academy

 

{2004} K. Ramaiah Memorial Award in Agricultural Research in Plant Production, National academy Agricultural Sciences, India

 

{2005}  Plaque of Honour, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

 

{2007}  Organized a Workshop on Utilization of Wild Germplasm in Brassicaceae, Chaired a        Session on Hybrids; 12th International Rapeseed Congress, Wuhan, China.

       

{2009}  U Memorial Medal for Outstanding Researches in Brassica Cytogenetics, Korean Academy Sciences

 

MARRIAGE, CHILDREN & REMINISCENCE OF PERSONAL LIFE

In 1972, Prof. Shyam Prakash got married to Smt. Laxmi. Their children are two – a daughter, Shevya and a son, Shashank.

 

Not only was he a great source of inspiration to his students, but also to his children. His success had such a profound influence on Garima, his daughter-in-law, that she joined Doctorate programme for pursuing her research career in the field of Geography.

 

As a person, he was a strict disciplinarian. He impressed those around him with his high regard for discipline, exemplary devotion to duty, keen sense of responsibility and his concern for precision and perfection in any work done by himself and under his supervision. Punctuality was inherent in his nature. His attention to neatness in deeds and words, and in manners and appearances (ironed clothes, shining shoes and hair always combed immaculately) was remarkable. He was extremely methodical in his work and used to plan everything in advance and was a true Karmayogi, a man of action. He did most of his own work himself and even with a battery of people around. Outwardly, he sometimes gave the impression of being hot-headed, dominating, and even harsh, but once the outer shell was broken, one invariably found in him a person of extreme warmth, deep humanity, sympathy and understanding.

 

Prof. Prakash’s interests were broad and ranged far beyond the sciences. Since his early days, Prof. Prakash was very fond of reading poetries and listening to “mushyaras” and “kavi sammelans”. He was deeply read in Indian history and ancient civilizations. A man of profound learning, he was well versed with Vedas, Puranas and Geeta. Traveling & reading were his passions. As an avid reader, he would take long walks over to the office library to borrow books and to book fairs to buy books. He used to enjoy visiting new places, historical monuments and museums. He never missed an opportunity during his international sojourns to visit nearby historical places and museums. At home, he used to stock up old coins and foreign currency and was a great lover of old artifacts. He has left behind his exceptional collection of old sculptures of Budha, Ganesha, and Mohenjo-daro.

 

Prof. Prakash’s unusual combination of gifts included an artistic ability, his immaculate writing, and his exceptional ability to foresee all major events of his life in his dreams. His art of conversation linked with a gift of repartee and sense of subtle humor, made an impression not easily forgotten. He had an imperial dressing sense with huge collection of exclusive shirts and suits. He used to spend hours for selecting gifts for his near ones, which were always appreciated because of his distinctive choice. He remained teetotaler and vegetarian all through his life and always preferred home made food, variety of fruits, and lots of sweets.  His favorite cuisine was potato curry with puries/kachories, samosas, tikkis and pakoras.

 

Prof. Prakash led a life of complete dedication to science and his work. His work always determined his propensity to learn new skills even at the advanced age of 62 when he acquired computer skills to pursue his passion of research and pedagogical writings. He was not very social and was hardly seen in social gatherings and marriage functions. Besides his professional friends and colleagues, his only social circle was his college time friends - Sh. P.P. Sharma and Sh. Anand Sadani.

 

He never believed in the existence of God. The rituals of ‘bribing’ deities for purely selfish reasons and very existence of pundits were obnoxious to him. Instead, he always believed in doing good deeds like helping poor children and deprived ones. Though he was an atheist but he made sure all through out his life to visit temple on Janamasthmi day.

 

He will always be remembered by his extended family by his generosity and the help he extended to them in all possible ways.

 

LAST DAYS

Even during his last days, Prof. Prakash was extremely industrious as ususal, and often worked in his study room – writing papers, reading journals, and regularly reviewing papers from International Journals. His only past time was playing with his grand-daughter – Kaashvi, whom he loved the most and nick named her “Devyani”.

 

Even though his last few months were marked by physical detoriation but like a Karmyogi his spirit nevertheless remained undeterred and he continued to work conscientiously on his last review paper, finished just before his death, which will come out in year 2011.

 

Prof. Prakash has left a good collection of unpublished manuscripts and unfinished works, to the completion of which he was looking forward with no inconsiderable anxiety. Had he lived, he would have been working on (as he planned himself):

 

<>–––Paper on Breeding for oil and meal quality in Indian Brassicas. Genetics and breeding of oil and meal quality, physiology and biotechnology.

 

Prof. Prakash’s was active till the very end. After a short period of illness, he had a severe cardiac arrest and on August 14, 2010, a career superb in science and great in its promotion and dissemination was tragically closed.

 

In 1999, when Prof. Shyam Prakash visited University of Melbourne to present a seminar, the newsletter published “World-renowned cytogeneticist plants seeds of knowledge”. Indeed, he has planted seeds of knowledge that will grow forever and set the pace for new researches in oilseed Brassicas. He is deeply missed by his family, friends and colleagues.

 

Below are the outpouring of feelings and reflections from some of Prof. Prakash’s close colleagues:

 

 “In late eightees, while working in the then Division of Botany of the IARI, the common interest in plant cytogenetics brought me into contact with Shyam Prakash as a means of sharing the excitement of our projects even though we worked in different administrative units. He impressed me both as scientist and a good human being but both of us ploughed our separate furrows. When I was given the responsibility of establishing the Biotechnology Centre at the IARI, and had started a project on the Brassicas, I asked Shyam Prakash if he would join us at the Centre. He literally jumped at the option and this lead to the formation of an internationally leading group of Brassica Biology in which Shyam was a lead actor. This also gave me the opportunity of understanding what made Shyam the man he was. He was an outstandingly productive scientist, focused & analytical in his approach and committed to the pursuit of excellence in whatever he undertook. His publications stand testimony to it. He was also a well read man of many diverse interests- going all the way from chromosomes to history of science.

In personal habits, he was meticulously neat and ensured that his trousers were never creased and his shoes had no dust! As a friend, he was affectionate, considerate, and completely dependable and trust worthy. He is deeply missed by his group of friends who derive some satisfaction from the fact that his contributions to Brassica biology have immortalized him.”

Professor V.L. Chopra

Former Member, Planning Commission, India

Former Director General, ICAR

 

“I had the good fortune to be closely associated with Prof. Shyam Prakash for the past 15 years. He started his scientific career with Brassica and developed a life-long passion for it. Assiduously following every development in Brassica, he became one of the leading authorities on this crop. His contributions to cytogenetics of Brassica species are widely acknowledged and he has produced the largest number and widest range of interspecific hybrids involving Brassica species. His review on Brassica cytogenetics (Prakash S & Hinata K, Opera Botanica, 1980, 55:1-57) remains a classic. He encouraged people to work on Brassica and supported them with materials and technical/scientific advice. In this way, he developed a wide scientific network (mostly informal) spanning countries such as Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Spain, Japan, Korea etc. He developed more than a dozen cytoplasmic male sterile lines of Brassica juncea, and laid the foundation for hybrid breeding in this crop.

Prof. Prakash was a meticulous researcher who planned his work well in advance and maintained a strict work schedule. The synthetic amphidiploid lines of B. juncea, B. carinata and B. napus that he produced more than 35 years ago as a part of his Ph.D. work survive to this day and  stand testimony to his foresight as they have  proved to be unique donors of novel cytoplasm and traits. As a person, he was extremely courteous and humane. He kept regular contact with friends and colleagues in both India and abroad and invariably enquired about the welfare of all the family members. History was another passion he pursued with great zeal. On tours related to scientific conferences, he made it a point to visit nearby museums, historic sites and monuments etc. In fact, for his forthcoming review (to appear in Plant Breeding Review 2011), he made enormous effort to unearth and collate information about the origin and domestication of Brassica.  He received accolades, awards and recognitions from science academies and Govt. Institutions. His sudden demise is a great personal loss for me and I am sure he will be remembered for a long time for his contributions to Brassica cytogenetics and improvement.”

Professor S. R. Bhat
National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology
Indian Agricultural Research Institute

 

“I had known him for more than 35 years since when he came to our laboratory in Tohoku University, Japan. I greatly appreciated his outstanding scientific researches on Brassica Crops and its wild allies, and also his warm personality.  His advanced studies on the wide crossing experiments between these species were absolutely excellent. His researches on Brassicas extended to very wide views and these were shown by his prominent review articles which covered wide knowledge. With his strong enthusiasm we enjoyed carrying out several closely collaborated joint researches into Brassicas.  No words can express the deep sadness I feel.  We will miss him, but his spirit will stay with all who knew him.”

Professor Kokichi Hinata

Professor Emeritus, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

 

“Dr. Prakash is my best friend. He is internationally well-known beyond the field of Brassica cytogentics. I invited him to our university for three times. Each time he gave us excellent reports and great help on postgraduate cultivation. What impressed me most is his preciseness in research and his profound knowledge of cytogenetics. He offered valuable instructions and help on research and English manuscripts of the postgraduates in Huazhong Agriculture University. My students regard him a reputable international tutor. I have known him for 20 years. His kindness, honesty, humility and clinging toward science research is worth to be learned by us.”

Professor Fu Tingdong

Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

 

(1991). Oilseed Brassicas in Indian Agriculture. Eds. V.L.Chopra and Shyam Prakash. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

(1996). Oilseed and Vegetable Brassicas: Indian Perspective. Eds. V.L.Chopra and Shyam Prakash. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi

(2002). Evolution and Adaptation of Cereal Crops. Eds. V.L.Chopra and Shyam Prakash. Science Publishers, Inc. USA

 

Research Papers

 

(1967). Narain, A and Prakash, S. Synthesis of a new amphidiploid species of Brassica: Brassica amarifolia.  Nature, Lond    213: 198-199

(1971). Prakash, S. and Narain, A. Genomic status of Brassica tournefortii Gouan. Theor.  Appl. Genet   41: 203-204

(1972). Narain, A.and Prakash, S.  Investigations on the artificial synthesis of amphidiploids of Brassica tournefortii Gouan with other elementary species of Brassica. I. Genomic relationships. Genetica  43: 90-97

(1973). Prakash, S. Non-homologous meiotic pairing in the A and B genomes of Brassica: Its breeding significance in the production of variable amphidiploids. Genet Res.  Camb.  21:133-137

(1973). Prakash, S. Artificial synthesis of Brassica juncea Coss. Genetica 44: 249-264

(1974). Prakash, S. Haploid in Brassica nigra Koch. Euphytica 22: 613-614

(1974). Prakash, S. Haploid meiosis and origin of Brassica tournefortii Gouan. Euphytica   23:591-595

(1974). Prakash, S.  Probable basis of diploidization of Brassica juncea Coss. Can. J. Genet Cytol 16: 232-234

(1983). Prakash, S. and Raut, R.N.  Genetic reconstruction of Brassica napus and its prospect as an oilseed crop in India. Indian J. Genet. 43:283-291

(1983). Prakash, S. and Raut, R.N. Genetic reconstruction of Brassica napus and its adoption as a new oleiferous crop in India. Proc.  6th Intl  Rapeseed  Congr. Paris 227-232

(1984). Hinata, K. and Prakash, S.  Ethnobotany and evolutionary origin of Indian oleiferous Brassicae. Indian J. Genet. 44: 102-112

(1984). Prakash, S., Gupta, S., Raut, R.N. and Anita Kalra. Synthetic Brassica carinata- a preliminary report.  Cruciferae Newslett. 9: 36-37

(1988). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Introgression of resistance to pod shatter in Brassica napus from Brassica juncea through non-homologous recombination. Plant Breeding 101:67-168

(1988). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Synthesis of alloplasmic Brassica campestris as a new source of cytoplasmic male sterility. Plant Breeding 101: 235-237

(1988). Nanda Kumar, P.B.A., Shivanna, K.R. and Prakash, S. Wide hybridization in Brassica:       Crossability barriers and studies on hybrids and synthetic amphidiploids of B.fruticulosa x        B.campestris. Sex.Plant Reprod. 1 -: 234-239

(1988). Narasimhulu, S.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Comparative shoot regeneration responses of diploid Brassicas and their synthetic amphidiploid products. Plant Cell Reports 7:525-527

(1989). Narasimhulu, S.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. The influence of cytoplasmic differences on shoot morphogenesis in Brassica carinata A.Br. Euphytica 40: 241-243

(1989). Batra, V., Shivanna, K.R. and Prakash, S. Hybrids of wild species Erucastrum gallicum and crop Brassicas. Proc.  6th  Intrn. Congr. SABRAO, 443-446

(1989). Nanda Kumar, P.B.A., Prakash, S. and Shivanna, K.R.  Wide hybridization in Brassica: Studies on interspeific hybrids between cultivated species (B.napus, B.juncea) and a wild species (B.gravinae). Proc 6th Intrn. Congr. SABRAO, 435-438

(1990). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Male sterility caused by cytoplasm of Brassica oxyrrhina In B.campestris and B.juncea. Theor Appl Genet 79: 285-287

(1990). Batra, V., Prakash, S. and Shivanna, K.R. Intergeneric hybridization between Diplotaxis siifolia - a wild species and crop Brasicas. Theor Appl  Genet  80: 537-541

(1990). Uprety, D.C., Prakash, S. and Tomar, V.K. Cytoplasm influences the photosynthetic efficiency in Brassica carinata. J. Agron Crop Science, 165: 207-210

(1990). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Reconstruction of alloploid Brassicas through non-homologous recombination: introgression of resistance to pod shatter in Brassica napus. Genet Res Camb 56: 1-2

(1990). Agnihotri, A., Gupta, V., Laksmikumaran, S., Shivanna, K.R., Prakash, S. and Jagannathan,V. Production of Eruca-Brassica hybrid by embryo rescue. Plant Breeding 104: 281-289

(1990). Agnihotri, A., Shivanna, K.R., Raina, S.N., Laksmikumaran, M., Prakash, S. and Jagannathan, V. Production of Brassica napus by Raphanobrassica hybrids by embryo rescue – an attempt to introduce shattering resistance   into Brassica napus. Plant Breeding 105: 292-299

(1991). Kirti, P.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Interspecific hybridization between Brassica juncea and B.spinescens through protoplast fusion. Plant Cell Reports 9: 639-642

(1991). Campbell, C.T., Seguin-Swartz, G. and Prakash, S. Artificial synthesis of Brassica juncea with B.nigra cytoplasm. Proc 8th International Rapeseed Congress Saskatoon, Canada (ed. D.I.McGregor) 4: 1040-1043

(1992). Gundimeda, H.R., Prakash, S. and Shivanna, K.R. Intergeneric hybrids between Enarthrocarpus lyratus, a wild species and crop Brassicas. Theor Appl Genet. 83:655-662

(1992). Kirti., P.B., Narasimhulu, S.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Production and characterization  of somatic hybrids of Trachystoma ballii and Brassica juncea. Plant Cell Reports 11:90-92

(1992). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Rapid and efficient plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of Brassica carinata. Plant Cell Reports 11:159-162

(1992). Kirtii, P.B., Narasimhulu,S.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Somatic hybridization between Brassica juncea and Moricandia arvensis by protoplast fusion. Plant Cell Reports 11:318-321

(1992). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P.B., Prakash, S. and chopra, V.L. Resynthesis of Brassica carinata by protoplast fusion and recovery of a novel cytoplasmic hybrid. Plant Cell Reports   11:428-432

(1992). Pradhan, A.K., Prakash, S., Mukhopadhyay, A and Pental, D. Phylogeny of Brassica and allied genera based on variation in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA patterns: Molecular and taxonomical classifications are incongruous. Theor Appl Genet   85: 331-340

(1992). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P.B., Mohapatra, T., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Shoot regeneration in stem segments of Brassica carinata and its amenability to Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer in Brassica carinata.   Plant Cell Reports 11:359-362

(1992). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P. B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Somatic embryogenesis in Brassica nigra. Jour Exp Bot. 43: 1203-1204

(1992). Narasimhulu, S.B., Prakash, S., Chopra, V.L. and Arunachalam,V. Comparative shoot regeneration in  diploid and amphidiploid Brassica species and their interspeific hybrids. Can. J. Bot.   70: 1513-1515

(1993). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P.B.. Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Rapid and efficient shoot regeneration from hypocotyls protoplasts of Brassica nigra. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult, 32: 35-38

(1993). Kirti., P.B., Narasimhulu, S.B., Mohapatra, T.,Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Correction of chlorophyll deficiency in alloplasmic male sterile Brassica juncea through  recombination between  chloroplst genome. Genet Res Camb, 62: 11-14

(1994). Rao, G.U., Batra, V.S., Prakash, S. and Shivanna, K.R. 1994. Development of a new cytoplasmic male sterile system in Brassica juncea through wide hybridization. Plant  Breeding  112: 171-174

(1994). Jain,A., Bhatia,S., Banga, S.S., Prakash, S. and Laksmikumaran, M. Potential use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to study the genetic diversirty in Indian mustard  (Brassica juncea (L) Czern & Coss) and its relationship with heterosis. Theor Appl Genet.   88: 116-122

(1994). Narasimhulu, S.B., Kirtii, P.B., Bhat, S.R., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Intergeneric protoplast fusion between Brassica carinata and Camelina sativa. Plant Cell Reports 14: 593-597

(1995). Kirti., P.B., Mohapatra, T., Kaur , H., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Diplotaxis catholica + Brassica juncea somatic hybrids: molecular and cytogenetic characterization. Plant Cell Reports 14: 593-597

(1995). Kirti., P.B., Mohapatra, T., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Development of a stable cytoplasmic male sterile line of Brassica juncea from somatic hybrid Trachystoma balli + Brassica juncea. Plant Breeding 114: 372-377

(1995). Kirti., P.B., Banga, S.S., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to  Brassica juncea and improvement of male sterile through somatic cell fusion. Theor Appl Genet    91: 517-521

(1995). Vyas, P., Prakash, S. and Shivanna, K.R. Production of wide hybrids and backcross progenies between Diplotaxis erucoides and crop Brassicas. Theor Appl Genet  90: 549-553

(1995). Chopra, V.L., Kirti, P.B. and Prakash, S.  Accessing and exploiting genes of breeding value of distant relatives of crop Brassicas.  Genetica 97: 305-312

(1995). Uprety, D.C., Prakash, S. and Abrol, Y.P. Variability for photosynthesis in Brassica and allied genera. Indian J Plant Physil  38: 207-213

(1996). Gaikwad, K., Kirti, P.B., Sharma, A., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Cytogenetical and molecular investigations on somatic hybrids of Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea and their backcross progeny. Plant Breeding   115:  480-483

 (1997). Kirti, P.B., Baldev, A., Gaikwad, K., Bhat, S.R., Dineshkumar, V., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Introgression of a gene restoring fertility to CMS (Trachystoma) Brassica juncea and the genetics of restoration.   Plant Breeding 116: 259-262

(1998). Prakash, S., Kirti, P.B. and Chopra, V.L. Development of cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration  systems of  variable origin in mustard-Brassica juncea.  Acta Horticulture. 459: 299-304

(1998). Prakash, S., Kirti, P.B., Bhat, S.R., Gaikwad, K., Dineshkumar, V. and Chopra, V.L. A Moricandia arvensis based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration system in Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet.     97: 488-492

(1998). Srinivasan, K., Malathi, V.G., Kirti, P.B., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Generation and characterization of monosomic chromosome addition lines of Brassica campestris-B.oxyrrhina. Theor Appl Genet   97: 976-981

(1998). Mohapatra, T., Kirti, P.B., Dineshkumar, V., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Random chloroplast segregation and mitochondrial gene recombination in somatic hybrids of Diplotaxis catholica +   Brassica juncea. Plant Cell Reports   17: 814-818

(1998). Kirti, P.B., Prakash, S., Gaikwad, K., Bhat, S.R., Dineshkumar, V., and Chopra, V.L. Chloroplast substitution overcomes leaf chlorosis in Moricandia arvensis based cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica juncea. Theor Appl Genet.    97: 1179-1182

(1998). Baldev, A., Gaikwad, K., Kirti, P.B., Mohapatra, T., Prakash, S., and Chopra, V.L. Recombination between chloroplast genome of Trachystoma ballii and Brassica juncea following protoplast fusion. Molecular  Gen Genet    260: 357-361             

(2001). Prakash, S., Ahuja I, Uprety H.C., Kumar, V.D, Bhat, SR, Kirti, P.B and Chopra, V.L. Expression of male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea with Erucastrum canariense  cytoplasm and  development of  fertility  restoration system. Plant Breeding 120: 178-182 

(2002). Sharma, G, Bhat, S. R., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Brassica coenospecies: a rich reservoir for genetic resistance to leaf spot Alternaria brassicae.  Euphytica    125: 411-417

(2003) Kirti, P.B., Bhat, S.R., Dineshkumar, V., Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. A simple protocol for regenerating mesophyll protoplasts of vegetable Brassicas.  J  Plant Biochem Biotechnology. 10: 49-51 

(2003). Pathania A, Bhat S R, DineshKumar V, Asutosh ,  Prakash S, and Chopra V.L  Cytoplasmic male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea carrying Diplotaxis catholica cytoplasm: Molecular charaterization and genetics of  fertility restoration.  Theor. Appl. Genet 107: 455 – 461

(2003). Deol, J. S., Shivanna. K. R., Prakash, S., and Banga, S.S.  Enarthrocarpus lyratus -   based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restorer system in Brassica rapa. Plant Breeding   122: 438-440

(2003). Prakash, S., Bhat, S.R., and Banga, S.S. Brassica napus: A new oilseed crop in India. Proc: 11th International Rapeseed Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark.   Vol. 1: pp 2-4

(2003). Bhat, S.R., Pathania, A., Gaekwad, K., Prakash, S, Kirti, P.B. and Chopra, V.L. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility systems in Brassica juncea. Proc: 11th International Rapeseed Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark.  Vol  2: pp 504-506

(2003). Kirti, P.B., Bhat,S.R., Dineshkumar,V., Prakash,S. and Chopra, V.L. A simple protocol for regenerating mesophyll protoplasts of vegetable Brassicas. Jour.  Plant Biochem Biotechnol  10: 49-51 

(2003). Pathania A, Bhat S R, Dinesh Kumar V, Asutosh,  Prakash S, and Chopra V.L. Cytoplasmic male sterility in alloplasmic Brassica juncea carrying Diplotaxis   catholica cytoplasm:  Molecular charaterization. and  genetics of  fertility restoration. Theor. Appl. Genet   107: 455 – 461

(2003). Deol J S, Shivanna K R, Prakash S, and Banga S S.   Enarthrocarpus lyratus – based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restorer system in Brassica rapa. Plant Breeding 122: 438-440

(2003). Prakash S, Bhat SR, and Banga SS. Brassica napus: A new oilseed crop in India. Proc:   11th International Rapeseed Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark.  Vol. 1: pp 2-4

(2005). Bhat, S.R., Prakash, S, Kirti, P.B., Dineshkumar, V. and Chopra, V.L. A unique introgression from Moricandia arvensis confers male fertility to two different cytoplasmic male   sterile lines   of   Brassica juncea. Plant Breed.  124: 117-120

(2005). Asutosh, Diwedi, K.K., DineshKumar, V., Prakash, S. and Bhat, S.R. rep-PCR helps to distinguish different   alloplasmic male sterile lines of Brassica juncea. Plant Science 168: 1083-1087

(2006). Bhat , S. R, Priya Vijayan, Ashutosh, Dwivedi, K. K. and  Prakash, S. Diplotaxis -induced cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica juncea is rescued by   Moricandia arvensis restorer: Genetic and  molecular analyses. Plant Breed.  125: 150-155

(2006). Muir, G., Gaikwad, K., Bhat, S.R., Prakash, S., and Kirti, P.B. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in  ctytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea. Jour. Genetics 85:133-139

(2006). Gaikwad, K., Baldev, A., Kirti, P.B., Mohapatra, T., Bhat, S.R., and  Prakash, S. Organization and expression of mitochondrial genome in CMS (Moricandia) Brassica juncea: Nuclear- mitochondrial incompatibility results in differential expression of mitochondrial atpA gene. Plant Breed.125: 623-628.

(2006). Meur, G., Budhata, M., Gupta, A., Prakash, S., and Kirti, P.B. Differential induction of NPR1 during defense responses in Brassica juncea. Physiological Molecular Plant Pathology 68:128-137

(2007). Ashutosh, P. C. Sharma, Prakash, S.,  S. R. Bhat. Identifcation of AFLP markers linked to   the male fertility restorer gene of CMS (Moricandia arvensis) Brassica juncea and conversion   to SCAR marker. Theor Appl Genet. 114:385–392.

(2007). Pathania, A., Rajesh Kumar, V.Dinesh Kumar, Ashutosh, K.K. Dwivedi, P.B. Kirti, S. Prakash, V.L.Chopra and S.R.Bhat.  A duplication of Cox I gene is associated with CMS (Diplotaxis catholica) Brassica juncea derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica. J. Genet. 86:93-101

(2007). Singh R, Shivanna, K.R. and Prakash, S. Studies on crossability barriers between Cultivated species and wild allies of crop Brassicas. Proc. 12th Intern.Rapeseed Congress, Wuhan, China Vol I.pp.272-276.

(2007). Prakash, S. and Bhat, S.R. Contribution of wild Crucifers in Brassica improvement: past                accomplishment and future perspectives. Proc. 12th Intern. Rapeseed Congress, Wuhan, China Vol I.pp.213-216

(2007). Jami, S.K., Anuradha, S.T., Meur, G., Datta-Gupta, A.,  Prakash, S. and Kirti, P.B. Characterization of genes of importance in stress resistance in mustard, Brassica juncea. Proc. 12th Intern. Rapeseed Congress, Wuhan, China Vol 2.pp.124-126         

(2007). Muir, G., Budhata, M., Gupta, A., Prakash, S.  and Kirti, P.B. Differential  induction of NPR1 during defense responses in Brassica juncea. Physiological Molecular Plant Pathology 68:128-137

(2007). Bhat, S.R., Kumar, P. and Prakash, S. An improved cytoplasmic male sterile (Diplotaxis berthautii) Brassica juncea: Identification of restorer and molecular characterization. Euphytica (on line Sepember 2007)

(2007). Ashutosh, Pankaj Kumar, Sharma, P.C., Prakash, S. and Bhat, S.R.  A novel orf108 co-transcribed with atpA gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica juncea carrying Moricandia arvensis cytoplasm. Plant Cell Physiology 49: 284–289

(2008). Bhat, S.R., Kumar, P. and Prakash, S. An improved cytoplasmic male sterile (Diplotaxis berthautii) Brassica juncea: Identification of restorer and molecular characterization.Euphytica 159:145-152.

(2009). Yadav, P., Prakash, S., Misra, D.P., Chopra, V.L. and Bhat, S.R. Synthetic  Brassica juncea lines with novel organellar genome constitution obtained through   protoplast fusion. J Genet. 88: 109-112.

(2010). Prakash, S,. Brassica Cytogenetics- a Historical Journey: and My Personal Reminiscence. Chinese J. Oil Crop Research. 32: 153-172.         

 

Reviews

 

(1980). Prakash, S. Cruciferous oilseeds in India. In: Brassica Crops and Wild Allies-Biology  and  Breeding. Eds. S. Tsunoda, K. Hinata and C. Gomez-Campo pp 151-163.   Japan Scientific Soc  Press, Tokyo

(1980). Prakash, S. and Hinata, K. Taxonomy, Cytogenetics and Origin of Crop Brassicas – A Review. Opera Botanica 55:1-57

(1983). Prakash, S. and Tsunoda, S. Cytogenetics of Brassica. In: Cytogenetics of Crop Plants. Eds. M.S.Swaminathan er al. pp 481-513. McMillan India, New Delhi

(1985). Raut, R.N. and Prakash, S. Synthetic Brassicas - New oilseeds for greater production. In:  Genetic Manipulation for Crop Improvement.  Ed. V.L.Chopra  pp. 205-227. Oxford  &  IBH  Publishing Co. New Delhi

(1989). Nand Kumr, P.B.A., Prakash, S. and Shivanna,K.R. Wide hybridization in crop Brassicas. In: Sexual Reproduction in Higher Plants. Eds.M. Cresti, P. Gori and E .Pacini Pp  95-100. Springer-Verlag

(1991). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Cytogenetics of crop Brassicas and their allies. In: Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution. Eds. T.Tsuchyia and P.K.Gupta. pp. 161-180. Elsevier Science Publishers, The Netherlands 

(1991). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L. Origin and evolution.In: Oilseed Brassicas in Indian Agriculture. Eds V.L.Chopra and Shyam Prakash pp 60-85. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi

(1991). Chopra, V.L. and Prakash, S. Taxonomy, distribution and cytogenetics. In: Oilseed Brassicas in Indian Agriculture. Eds V.L.Chopra and Shyam Prakash pp 29-59. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi

(1992). Prakash, S. and  Chopra, V.L. Genome manipulations. In: Breeding Oilseed Brassicas. Eds K.S.Labana et al pp 108-131. Springer-Verlag

(1995). Prakash, S., Kirti, P.B. and Chopra, V.L. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) systems other than Ogu and Polima in Brassica: Current status. Proc.  9th Intern Rapeseed Congr., Cambridge, U.K., 1:44-48

(1996). Chopra, V.L. and Prakash, S. Taxonomy and cytogenetics.In: Oilseed and Vegetable Brassicas: Indian Perspective. Eds V.L.Chopra  and  S. Prakash  pp  6-34. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi

(1996). Chopra, V.L. and Prakash, S. Origin and evolution.In: Oilseed and Vegetable Brassicas: Indian Perspective. Eds V.L.Chopra and S. Prakash pp 35-49. Oxford & IBH, New Delhi

(1999). Gomez Campo, C. and Prakash, S. Origin and domestication.  In: Biology of Brassica Coenospecies. Ed  C. Gomez-Campo. pp 59-106. Elsevier Science

(1999). Prakash, S., Takahata, Y., Kirti. P.B. and Chopra, V.L. Cytogenetics. In: Biology of Brassica Coenospecies .Ed C. Gomez-Campo  pp. 59-106. Elsevier Science

(1999). Prakash, S. and Chopra, V.L.  Eighty years of Brassica Cytogenetics. Proc 10th Intern.  Rapeseed Congr, Canberra, Australia

(2001). Prakash, S. Utilization of wild germplasm of Brassica allies in developing  male  sterility- fertility  restoration systems in Indian mustard-Brassica juncea. Proc. Intern Symp Rapeseed Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, China (ed Houli, L. and Fu Tingdong) pp 73-78. Science Press, New York

(2004). Prakash, S., Bhat, S.R., and Kirti, P.B. Utilization of wild germplasm for Brassica improvement in India.  Brassica   6: 1-8

(2004). Prakash, S., Bhat, S.R., Kirti, P.B., Banga, S.S., Banga, S.K. and Chopra, V.L. Oilseed Brassica crops in India: History and improvement. Brassica   6:1-54                 

(2009). Prakash, S., S. R. Bhat, C. F. Quiros, P. B. Kirti, and V. L. Chopra. Brassica and its Close Allies: Cytogenetics and Evolution.  2009p. Plant Breeding Reviews 31: 21-187

(2009). Prakash, S., Bhat, S.R., and Fu T.D. Wild germplasm and male sterility. In: Biology and Breeding of Crucifers. (ed. S.K. Gupta)  pp. 113-127.CRC Press, New York

(2011). Prakash, S, Xiao-Min Wu, and S.R. Bhat. History, Evolution, and Domestication of Brassica Crops. Plant Breeding Reviews. 

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